How to Remove Hydrogen Sulfide from Biogas

The vital toxin in biogas is hydrogen sulfide, and this contaminant is corrosive and poisonous. When not addressed immediately,  degreaser formulation, hydrogen sulfide can cause irreparable damage to the equipment, instrumentation, and piping. The presence of various components in biogas can impact its efficiency and end-use. When internal engines can perform the best in less than 100 ppm hydrogen sulfide or H2S concentration, boilers can survive in 1000 ppm concentration. However, there are many ways to remove H2S from biogas. The most common methods for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas are biological desulphurization and iron chloride dosing. We will cover both these methods in the following.

Biological Desulphurization

This method uses microorganisms to remove hydrogen sulfide from biogas. Most sulfide oxidizing microorganisms come from the Thiobacillus family. You will need stoichiometric amounts of oxygen for microbiological oxidation to remove hydrogen sulfide from biogas. You will have to add this much oxygen to the biogas, and it needs to be two to six percent air, depending on the hydrogen sulfide concentration.

You will find this method easy and cost-effective. You can add air or oxygen directly to the storage tank or digester surfactant. As Thiobacilli is ubiquitous, the system will not require inoculation. It will grow on the digester surface while providing necessary microaerophilic and essential nutrients at the same time. It will form yellow clusters and can have a significant impact on the sulfide level. This addition can reduce the amount of sulfide concentration up to 95% or even less than 50 ppm based on the reaction time and temperature. However, the process will require some safety measures.

You will have to add a proper amount of oxygen or air. Overdosing can offer adverse results. Additionally, biogas is explosive in the air in the 6 and 12% range. Any mistake might lead to pump failures. If you use a steel digester, there might be a risk of corrosion at the liquid or gas interface. You can avoid this with rust protection in digesters.

Iron Chloride Dosing

The usage of the iron chloride method is also straightforward. You can feed the iron chloride to the substrate or digester slurry directly. The chloride will react with the hydrogen sulfide fast. As a result, it will form iron sulfide particles. You might find this method extremely effective since it can reduce high hydrogen sulfide levels. However, it is not much effective to attain a stable and low level of hydrogen sulfide.  Therefore, it might not be the best method all the time. You can use it as a partial removal process water-based surfactant. The benefit is that it will avoid corrosion in the upgrading process. You will need another removal process to reduce the concentration in biogas.

Both these methods for hydrogen sulfide removal from biogas are easy to follow and effective. However, there will be some limits and benefits. Know your requirements before considering any removal method. Moreover, both these processes are cost-effective, and you will not have to spend on tools. For example, you will need only a storage tank and dosing pump for the iron chloride dosing method.

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Uses of Non-Ionic Surfactant

Nonionic surfactants have the benefit of ionic surfactants. It has a wide variety of hydrophilic and lipophilic balance by ever-changing molecular structures. For this benefit, a variety of surfactant aggregates with both negative and positive curves. No. Ionic surfactants have much shorter chains than polymer. The non ionic surfactants are best used in the form of washing and cleaning agents. This nonionic surface active agent is more preferred than the ionic surfactant.

These are excellent solvents and high-quality chemical stability. So, various industries use this to form cleaning agents. These are used in wetting agents, emulsifiers, detergents, agriculture, cosmetics, and healthcare industries as well.

Some popular variations of surfactant wetting agents are used in the industries like castor oil ethoxylates, fatty amine ethoxylates, fatty alcohol ethoxylates, alkylphenol ethoxylates, and glycerine ethoxylates as well.

Castor oil ethoxylates

These are derivatives of the ethoxylation process of castor oil and ethylene oxide as well. These non-ionic surfactants are widely used in topical, oral, and pharmaceutical formations. You can use these for emulsifying processes and solubilizing agents as well. So, these agents are perfect for aqueous liquid formation. In the cosmetic industry, these are used as solubilizing agents. You can also use this as the replacement for castor oil in the production of hand lotion for cleaner formulation.

Fatty amine ethoxylates

Ethoxylation of amine with ethylene oxide can form a bi-product known as fatty amine ethoxylates. These surfactants are non-ionic and are used in the formation of emulsifier blends. These are used in wetting agents, cleaners, sanitizers, stabilizers, metal cleaners, deforming agents, and all. You can also use these in metal, drilling, chemical, textile, and paper industries.

Alkylphenol ethoxylates

It is produced by ethoxylation of alkylphenols like nonylphenol, propyl phenol, octylphenol, dodecyl phenol, and all. It can be used in the formation of detergents and emulsifiers for industry applications. It is also used in pesticides, hair dyes, lube oil, hair care products, and all.

Fatty alcohol ethoxylates

While ethylene oxides react with stearyl alcohol, lauryl alcohol, behenyl alcohol, and other types of fatty alcohols, fatty alcohol ethoxylates are created and formed. These are used in the cosmetics and chemical industries. These are used as wetting agents and cleaning agents in the industries like textile, agriculture, oil, paper, cosmetics, and various others.

Fatty acid ethoxylates

Fatty acids are stearic acid, lauric acid, and oldie acid. These will react with ethylene oxide. This will create a formation of derivatives of fatty acid and these are known as fatty acid ethoxylates. You should know that like other ethoxylation products, this is also nonionic. You can widely use this in cleaning, bleaching, and scouring applications as well.

Nonionic agents contain no charge. You can find them in cleaning and washing agents.  These are the second most surfactants used after anionic. But many cleaning products have both anionic and nonionic agents to balance the cleaning potential with the risk of skin problems and irritation as well. You can find nonionic agents in so many household cleaning and washing products.

Contact Us:

Chemical Products Industries, Inc.

Address: 7649 SW 34th St, Oklahoma City, OK
Phone: (800) 624-4356