All You Need to Know About Bone Marrow Transplant Procedure

Bone marrow transplantation is one of the most effective ways of treating different types of blood cancer. Bone marrow refers to a soft and spongy element inside large bones in the body. It is capable of producing over 200 billion new cells each day, which include white and red blood cells along with platelets.

But when an individual is afflicted with any disease concerning the bone marrow, these essential procedures are compromised. In such conditions, a bone marrow transplant procedure is the only chance of survival and a plausible treatment process. 

Conditions when bone marrow transplant procedure becomes essential

The physical conditions in which bone marrow transplantation may become necessary can be broadly classed into two categories: cancerous and non-cancerous conditions. 

Cancerous conditions

  • Multiple myeloma
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Chronic myeloid and Lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute myeloid and Lymphoblastic leukemia 
  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms

Non-cancerous conditions

  • Congenital storage disorders
  • Congenital errors of metabolism
  • Aplastic anemia
  • Immuno-deficiency disorders
  • Sickle cell anemia and thalassemia

Different types of bone marrow transplantation

  • Allogenic transplant: 

Stem cells for this procedure are derived from another individual known as a donor. The stem cells of the donor are administered to the patient’s body after the latter has undergone radiation and chemotherapy. This process is also termed an ALLO transplant where people are often affected by ‘graft-versus-cancer cell impact’. This happens when new stem cells find and kill the cancer cells while they are still in the body. 

The most critical step of ALLO is determining the right match for the donor. The match refers to any healthy donor having blood proteins or human leukocyte antigens closely matching the patient. This process is termed as HLA typing.

Often, siblings from the same biological parents are the best match for the process even though it doesn’t mean that other members of the family or distant relatives cannot volunteer. When the protein of the donor closely matches that of the patient, the chances of having serious side effects of graft versus host disease are curbed to a great extent. 

  • Autologous transplant: 

The stem cells for this aml bone marrow transplant procedure are derived from the body of the patient itself. At times, bone marrow cancer is treated with intensive and high-dose radiation or chemotherapy. This kind of treatment not only destroys the stem cells but also one’s immune system. This explains why doctors remove or rescue the stem cells of the patients from the blood or bone marrow before the treatment plan begins. 

Once the chemotherapy is over, the stem cells are placed back in the patient’s body, and the immune system is also restored. This procedure is also termed stem cell rescue or AUTO transplant. 

Other options for aml flt3 bone marrow transplant procedures include haplotype mismatched transplants and umbilical cord blood transplants. 


Bone marrow transplantation is a complex medical procedure and at times, certain phases are necessary and they may have to be completed in a different order. It is, therefore, important to work closely with your healthcare provider and discuss the processes, and what to expect before and after the treatment. 

Contact Us:

Gift of Life Marrow Registry

Address: 800 Yamato Rd suite 101 Boca Raton, FL 33487
Phone: (800) 962-7769